April 2012

Non-mathematical summary of the paper

A Thermodynamic Perspective on the Interaction of Radio Frequency Radiation with Living Tissue 1 http://article.sapub.org/pdf/10.5923.j.biophysics.20120201.01.pdf Michael Peleg The paper presents interesting aspects of a possible interaction between radio radiation and the living tissues of our bodies from the point of view of thermodynamics. This thermodynamic perspective may seem unfamiliar; still it is just a part of classic mainstream physics as shown in the paper. It is well known that we are always surrounded by a background natural radio-frequency (RF) radiation called the ‘black body radiation’ which is intimately related to temperature and to the thermal energies of the particles making up all matter including our bodies. A fixed ratio between the energy of the radiation and the thermal energies of the molecules in our bodies is maintained at a thermal equilibrium according to the well established 'equipartition principle'. If the energy of the radiation becomes higher relative to that of the particles, then the radiation energy is passed to the particles till the equilibrium is restored by a very fundamental force of nature (maximization of entropy). This is exactly the same phenomena as heat flowing from a hot region to a cold one until a uniform temperature is reached. Man-made radio transmission, such as cellphone, its base-station or RADAR, raises the energy of the surrounding radio radiation to levels corresponding to a temperature of millions of degrees even for standard radiation levels. This upsets the thermal equilibrium and creates a strong natural tendency to transfer this radio energy to the particles of our bodies till they would reach the same extreme temperature of millions of degrees. We do not reach such a temperature because the energy transfer is very slow and because there is a natural cooling by 1

The full paper is available for free in the International Journal of Biophysics http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.biophysics.20120201.01.html http://article.sapub.org/pdf/10.5923.j.biophysics.20120201.01.pdf

thermal conduction which removes most of the surplus heat from our bodies, so the average rise of our temperature is low at the legal radiation levels. However the extreme temperature corresponding to the radiation energy has the following two-fold significance: 1. It creates the possibility of hotspots since local differences in thermal conduction and in radiation coupling can create differences in local temperatures. 2. It creates a strong thermodynamic tendency to transfer the radiation energy to the particles of our bodies. (This tendency is driven by an increase in 'entropy' during the transfer, the same as a flow of heat from an extremely hot region to a cold one.) The heating of each particular molecule or a group of molecules depends on how fast the energy flows from the radiation to the specific molecules and how fast it is dissipated from those molecules to the surroundings. This may be different for different molecules. Thus some molecules, for example those on the cell membrane, may acquire more energy than the others. Indeed there is some previous research indicating that the radio energy absorption in a living cell is not uniform. The local temperature rise need not be dramatic to cause damage since energy equivalent to a temperature rise of only a few degrees has strong biological consequences as anyone who got a fever knows. Such effect would be categorized as nonthermal since it would not arise by a uniform warming. Are there really such molecules? Radio waves surely do modify the living tissue as proved by many laboratory experiments on living human cells and all radio radiation is categorized as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the world health organization (WHO). It is not known how the interaction exactly happens; the outline presented in this paper is a possibility. On the other hand, as outlined by others, this is not the only conceivable way for RF radiation to effect living tissue. In any case physics does not view the radio radiation as "weak" and a significant interaction between living tissue and radio radiation is well compatible with known classic physics.

A remark: The energy of the 'black body radiation' at radio frequencies is not limited in any way by the concept of photons, each component of the 'black body radiation' at radio frequencies comprises thousands of photons similarly to a sea wave which comprises many water drops acting in unison. For more details on radio frequency radiation and photons see Peleg M. (2011): "Bioelectromagnetic phenomena are affected by aggregates of many radio-frequency photons". Presented at the International Conference on Environmental Indicators (ISEI), 11 to 14 Sept. 2011 in Haifa. Available at http://sites.google.com/site/pelegmichael/Aggregates_of_RF_photons.pdf and at http://vixra.org/pdf/1202.0017v1.pdf

A Thermodynamic Perspective on the Interaction of Radio Frequency ...

Apr 1, 2012 - would reach the same extreme temperature of millions of degrees. ... possibly carcinogenic to humans by the world health organization (WHO).

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