Computational Intelligence applied to Motion Planning and Control in Biped Robotics: A survey Juan J. Figueredo

Structure 1. Introduction „ 2. Dynamical and Biological Aspects of BipedWalking „ 3. Problem Definition „ 4. A taxonomy of motion planning and control methods in biped walking „ 5. Discussion and future trends „

Introduction „

Motion planning and control is relevant because: … Most

environments are devised to adapt well to humans. … It gives us understanding of human morphology, mechanics and control. … It is a complex control problem in nonlinear and nonholonomic systems.

Biomechanical Preliminaries of Walking „

Modeling Walking: … Articulated

motion of several rigid bodies … Simplification to 12-DOF in lower limbs. „

„ „

„

In the hip: Flexion-Extension, Abduction-Adduction, ExternalInternal Rotation In the knee: Flexion-Extension In the ankle: Plantarflexion-Dorsiflexion, PronationSupination

Stability … Static … Dynamic

Stability

CoM

ZMP

Biological Considerations on Biped Locomotion „

Six models of bipedal walking (Vaughan): … Bipedal

walking as an evolutionary adaptation of hominids. … Minimization of energy consumption by displacing the CoM along an optimal path … Progressive learning with risk of falling minimization … Spinal cord interneurons acting as rhythmic central pattern generators … Neural system training along with biomechanical system and environment adaptation … Feedback control in powered dynamic locomotion

Biological Considerations on Biped Locomotion (II) „ „ „

„

Tree levels for neural motion control: Feedback control in motoneurons: contribution of reflex action over motoneuron signal intensity. Feedback control in central pattern generator flexor-extensor centers: movement synchronization and reflex response to perturbation and loads. Higher level control: conscious control of locomotion..

Problem Definition „

Give to a biped robot an optimal locomotion … Conserve

static stability … Walk conserving dynamic stability … Locally minimize energy consumption in locomotion … React to external perturbations … Plan gait trajectories to attain specific objectives … Move across unstructured environments … Globally minimize energy consumption in locomotion for a given objective

A taxonomy of motion planning and control methods in biped walking

Central Pattern Generator (CPG) Methods „

„

„

Coordinated rhythmic stimulation to generate a gait pattern. It is inspired from the spinal motor center find in animals. Approaches: …

Oscillatory Neural Networks … Evolutionary Optimization of CPGs … Rhythmical Dynamic Systems

Trajectory Tracking Methods Generating a kinematic pattern in a way such that following it (in joint spaced) yields a successful gait pattern. „ Advances in energy consumption optimization. „ Approaches: „

… Predefined

trajectories … Evolved Trajectories

Dynamic Walking Control „ „ „ „ „

Obtain dynamic stable walking by a control based on various techniques. Highly complex. ZMP related. Partial objective tracking and phase reset techniques. Approaches: … Recurrent

Neural Networks … Fuzzy Systems … Hybrid Methods

Static Walking Control „ „ „

„

Displaced by Dynamic Control Very low velocities required to make negligible the inertial forces. They still have a research value in studying the stationary phases and posture of bipeds and some specific movement patterns. Approaches: … Neural

Networks … Genetic Algorithms

Discussion and future trends „ „ „

„

„

Current development in the field of biped robotics is highly varied Several objectives cannot be completely fulfilled be one method alone Active control … Remarkable achievements … High inefficiency … Cannot perform well in unstructured environments Passive Dynamic Walking … High efficiencies but cannot navigate satisfactorily in 2D and 3D Computational Intelligence … In early development … Flexibility … Adaptation … Low energy consumption

A survey

morphology, mechanics and control. □It is a complex control problem in nonlinear ... Neural system training along with biomechanical system and environment ...

420KB Sizes 0 Downloads 60 Views

Recommend Documents

Face Detection Methods: A Survey
IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 1, Issue 11, November, 2013, Pg. 282-289 ... 1Student, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune University. Pune .... At the highest level, all possible face candidates are fo

Wireless sensor network: A survey
[email protected] 1, [email protected] 2. Abstract. This paper Describe the concept of Wireless Sensor Networks which has.

Text Simplification: A Survey
Mar 4, 2008 - 4.1 Text simplification systems for general NLP applications . ... Section 4 investigates the development of current state of the art. ...... MySQL port of WordNet (Princeton University) developed by Android Technolo- gies.

Type Inference Algorithms: A Survey
An overview of type inference for a ML-like language can be found ..... this convention early on because it was built into some of the Coq libraries we used in our.

Finance: A Selective Survey
psychology, and then estimating such links empirically using historical data and performing proper statistical ... of a portfolio containing an equal dollar amount invested in each security traded on the New York and American ... meaningful.

CATI Survey Questionnaire - China Household Finance Survey
A01b. [CATI load name] contact information [correct the phone number and dial it]. A02. .... Last quarter, what was the total net business income of your family?

CATI Survey Questionnaire - China Household Finance Survey
situation of losing jobs and then being reemployed? 1. Yes. 2. No[skip to .... computer and other durables? F04a. Last quarter, how ... Best regards for you! Bye!

Virtual Camera Planning: A Survey
Camera shots are the heart of producing truly interactive visual applications. .... Working on the visualization of space probes passing planets, he developed a.

IAASE: Growth Model Survey This survey was ...
It increases teacher motivation to try new things and measure the results of ... Professional development should be included as well to offer support to teachers. .... Factories control the quality of the end product by mandating the quality of the.

Waste Watch Survey Residential Survey Results (Final Summary ...
Waste Watch Survey Residential Survey Results (Final Summary).pdf. Waste Watch Survey Residential Survey Results (Final Summary).pdf. Open. Extract.

National Hispanic Survey Results
Jun 21, 2013 - Among all Hispanics, six in ten, 60%, support granting legal status to those .... California. 27. 26. 21. 25 ... Not College Graduate. 27. 28. 15. 28.