IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014,Pg:186190

International Journal of Research in Information Technology (IJRIT) www.ijrit.com

ISSN 2001-5569

A Review on Digital Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Sanket Sardar 1, Manisha Ingle 2,

Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Government College of Engineering, Amravati, Maharashtra, India [email protected] Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Government College of Engineering, Amravati, Maharashtra, India [email protected]

Abstract In Wireless communication systems, the high data transmission rate is considered to be the most important factor. The Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) is a suitable solution for implementation of high speed data transmission by dividing the spectrum available into multiple bands. In this paper we will take the overview of the MB-OFDM technique, which is considered to be a good option for high data transmission rates and lowering the bit error rate and increasing flexibility.

Keywords: FPGA, IFFT, OFDM, QPSK, HINOC

1. Introduction The multiple band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is considered to be the best solution for Ultra wideband (UWB) Personal Area Networks (PANs). With the increase of communications technology, the demand for higher data rate services such as multimedia, voice, and data over both wired and wireless links is also increased. OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is an effective multicarrier technology for robust and reliable high-rate and high-speed data transmission in the wire/wireless communication systems such as DAB, DVB-T, IEEE802.11a, CMMB etc, because of its spectral efficiency and ability to mitigate the effects of delay spread and inter-symbol interference (ISI). In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated 7,500 MHz of spectrum (from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz) for use by UWB devices. This ruling has helped to create new standardization efforts, like IEEE 802, that focus on developing high speed wireless communication systems for personal area network (PAN). A multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra wideband (UWB) system is being considered for the physical layer of the new IEEE wireless personal area network (WPAN) standard, IEEE 802.15. The standard aims at the high data transmission rates. The MB-OFDM technology is nothing but combining multiple carrier frequencies simultaneously and at the same time provide the transmission into multiple bands thus utilizing the available bandwidth.

Sanket Sardar,

IJRIT

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014,Pg:186190

2. About MB-OFDM The multiband ofdm is the key technology which provides greater transmission rates both in wired and wireless communications. But before moving towards MB-OFDM the understanding of frequency division multiplexing and OFDM is necessary. Basically FDM is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency sub-bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal, means it divides the total available bandwidth in the spectrum into sub-bands for multiple carriers to transmit in parallel. It combines a large number of low data rate carriers to construct a composite high data rate communication system. In OFDM the sub-carrier frequencies are chosen so that the sub-carriers are orthogonal to each other, meaning that cross-talk between the sub-channels is eliminated and inter-carrier guard bands are not required. The orthogonality gives the carriers a valid reason to be closely spaced with overlapping without ICI (inter carrier interference). Hence ofdm is considered to be the more effective than normal frequency division multiplexing. This simplifies the design of both the transmitter and the receiver; unlike conventional FDM, a separate filter for each sub-channel is not required. The ofdm allows a single transmission medium such as the radio spectrum, a cable or optical fiber to be shared by many signals. It is used in digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting (DVB) in Europe. Some of the standards like IEEE 802 and others also uses the OFDM. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a widely used modulation and multiplexing technology, which has become the basis of many telecommunications standards including wireless local area networks (LANs), digital terrestrial television (DTT) and digital radio broadcasting also. So the concept is based on spreading the data to be transmitted over a large number of carriers, each being modulated at a low rate separately. The carriers are made orthogonal to each other by appropriately choosing the frequency spacing between them. The basic diagram is shown below for the neat understanding of the ofdm which consist of some basic building blocks like encoder, IFFT, DAC at the transmitting side and FFT and decoder and ADC receiver side for the secured data transmission.

Fig1. Transmitter

The input data is in the binary form given to transmitter, certain modulation technique like QPSK is applied to it then it is being fed to the inverse fast fourier transform and then there will be a digital to analog convertor (DAC) which will convert the digitized data to analog, afterwards the whole input will be applied to RF front end transmitting antenna, it will transmit the combined signal. At the receiver side this transmitted signal is received and analog to digital data conversion takes place(ADC), the digitized data will be decoded as it is been encoded at the transmitter block by block sequentially and the other party will receive original signal.

Sanket Sardar,

IJRIT

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014,Pg:186190

Fig 2. Receiver

The data which is encoded at the transmitting side using some technique, and it will be decoded using the same at the receiver so the secured data transmission will be possible. The figure shown below describes the allocations of the separate frequency bands to the channel and again dividing the original band into sub-bands for efficient use of bandwidth.

Fig 3. Multiple bands The multi-banding ofdm approach saves the bandwidth by dividing the original band into several sub-bands thus each channel is having some bandwidth divided into certain sub bands so improving the efficiency and lowering bit error rate and utilizing total bandwidth for each channel makes the MB-OFDM technique more effective than others.

3. Related Work As MB-OFDM the is type of technology which deals with faster data transmission, with high efficiency, so the data transmission must be faster and secured. Hence for the secured data transmission the data must be encoded in such a way that it must not be tracked or detected by an unknown party. For this purpose the baseband of the transmitter must be encrypted in a particular manner. The various technologies ware developed for wired and wireless communications using mb-ofdm technique and achieved a grater and secured transmission rates. The various papers gives various explanations and different characteristics about the MBOFDM systems considering the applications like pipelined ofdm, pulsed ofdm, wired or wireless use of OFDM for their particular application purposes. The previously proposed work on implementation of MB-OFDM explained the structure of MB-OFDM system transmitter and also introduced and the design of transmitter baseband based on FPGA the design has been validated with Xilinx Virtex FPGA. There are many papers available which gives the explanations about the flexibility and the data transmission rates of multiple band ofdm. some researches done on digital OFDM transmitter architecture using FPGA design and concluded that the OFDM is the key technology of HINOC (high performance network over coax) physical layer standard [1]. Sanket Sardar,

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IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014,Pg:186190

Some other paper suggested that in OOFDM (optical-ofdm) when the optical network unit’s gets closer to subscribers, coaxial cables transmission bandwidth will be higher than twisted-pair or wireless transmission very much, but not concluded any results for wireless communications. Some work has been done on design of a multiband OFDM system for realistic UWB channel environments and described that the design of a UWB system are designed for very high bit-rate, low-cost, and low-power wireless networks for personal computing (PC), consumer electronics (CE), and mobile applications. The system combined OFDM modulation technique with a multi-banding approach, which divided the spectrum into several sub-bands, whose bandwidth is approximately 500 MHZ. It is also proved that OFDM is the key technology in wired (coaxial cables) communications and certain work which is proposed on MB-OFDM for achieving the grater transmission rates lowering the bit error rate, improved efficiency and cost efficient in wired and wireless communications and research is still in progress for both types of communications.

4. Conclusions The MB-OFDM technique is proved to be the best technique for wired and wireless communications having efficient use of available bandwidth and having less complexity, more efficiency and improving grater transmission rates.

References [1] Xiaoxin CUI and Dunshan YU, “Digital OFDM transmitter architecture and FPGA Design”, 978-1-42443870, IEEE 2009.

[2] Kai-chaun Chang and Gerald E Sobelman, "FPGA-Based Design of pulse OFDM system", 1-4244-0387-1/ IEEE 2006

[3] Anuj Batra, et al. Design of a Multiband OFDM System for Realistic UWB Channel Environment, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO.9, SEPTEMBER 2004.

[4] J. Balakrishnan, A. Batra, A. Dabak, A multi-band OFDM system for UWB communication, IEEE Conference on Ultra Wideband Systems and Technologies, 2003, pp. 354-358.

[5] A. Batra et al., TI physical layer proposal for IEEE 802.15 task group 3a, IEEE P802.15-03/142r2- TG3a, Mar. 2003.

[6] G. Hill, M. Faulkner, and J. Singh, "Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio in OFDM by cyclically shifting partial transmit sequences," Electronics Letters, vol. 36, pp. 560-561, Mar 16 2000.

Sanket Sardar,

IJRIT

189

IJRIT International Journal of Research in Information Technology, Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2014,Pg:186190

Sanket Sardar,

IJRIT

190

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