JANUARY 28-31, 2013 SANTA CLARA CONVENTION CENTER

A Rapid Prototyping of FPGA-Based Duobinary Transmitter/Receiver for High Speed Electrical Backplane Transmission

Authors • Ashraf Umar, Penn State Harrisburg – Email: [email protected]

• Aldo Morales, Penn State Harrisburg – Email:[email protected]

• Sedig Agili, Penn State Harrisburg – Email:[email protected]

• Mike Resso, Agilent – Email:[email protected]

• Marcel Christoph Welpot, Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences – Email: [email protected]

Presentation Outline • • • • •

Introduction to Duobinary and FPGA System Design Simulation VHDL Code Generation Code Compilation • Analysis and Synthesis • Placing and Routing • Program File Generation

• Device Programming

TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SIGNAL INTEGRITY • Passive: Use of high quality microwave substrate materials and new connector technologies. – Problem of cost – Performance deterioration for very long trace lengths

TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SIGNAL INTEGRITY • Active: Achieved through signal processing to overcome poor transmission property of the channel. – PAM, adaptive equalization, pre-emphasis etc. However there is a problem of power consumption and system complexity issues. – Duobinary tries to shape the data waveform in accordance with the roll off response of the backplane channel. This accomplishes bandwidth reduction and simplification compared to other approaches.

DUOBINARY SIGNALING • • • •

Three Level Signaling Ease of implementation Less complex compared to PAM-4 Reduced Bandwidth compared to NRZ

Spectrum of NRZ and Duobinary

sin

sin 2 2

DUOBINARY SIGNALING II • Basically consists of a delay and add filter – y[n]=x[n]+x[n-1]

• Precoder is usually necessary to avoid error propagation. – Implemented with a delay and X-OR gate as shown

Duobinary with no precoder • 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Binary • -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 Bipolar • -2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 -2 -2 Duobinary • To decode, – If we have a 2, a 1 was sent – If we have a -2, a 0 was sent – If we have a 0, the opposite of the previous bit was sent



0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

Decoded

Error Propagation without Precoder • 0 1 1 0 1 0 • -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 • -2 0 2 2 0 • 0 1 1 1 0

1 -1 0 1

1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 0 2 2 0 -2 -2 0 1 1 0 0 0

Binary Bipolar Duobinary Decoded

Decoding with a Precoder • 0 1 1 • 0 0 1 0 • -1 -1 1 -1 • -2 0 0 • To decode:

0 0 -1 -2

1 1 1 0

0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 2 0 0 0 -2 -2 -2

– All 2,-2 are 0 – All zeros are 1



0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0

Single Error with precoder • 0 1 1 0 • 0 0 1 0 0 • -1 -1 1 -1 -1 • -2 0 0 0 • 0 1 1 1

1 1 1 0 1

0 1 1 2 0

1 0 -1 0 1

1 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -2 -2 1 0 0

0 0 -1 -2 0

FPGA • Field Programmable Gate Array • Bunch of Configurable Logic Blocks that can be programmed • Can be programmed on the field • Ability for parallel Computing

CONFIGURABLE LOGIC BLOCK

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

SWITCH I/O

I/O

FPGA PROGRAMMING • Hardware Description Languages – Verilog • Developed by Phil Moorby • Easier to learn than VHDL

– VHDL: Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language • Developed by DoD and standards by IEEE • More difficult to learn but flexible. However, there is a tendency of producing designs that cannot be synthesized

• Schematic Entry – Use of built-in blocks – Not as flexible as Hardware Description Languages

End to End Simulation

25Gbps Data Source

SIMULATION I Binary Signal

Delayed Signal

Precoded Signal

Bipolar Signal

Delayed Bipolar Signal Duobinary Signal Recovered Binary Signal

Transmitter Model

Channel Response

Some Code

Eye Diagram Before Channel

Eye Diagram After Channel

Eye After Equalization

VHDL Code Generation

VHDL Code Generation II

Cyclone IVE FPGA Board

http://www.altera.com/education/univ/materials/boards/de2-115/unv-de2-115-board.html

Quartus Software

Entering Design Files

Device Selection

Program Compilation

Pin Assignment

Device Programming

Stratix V GT FPGA Board

http://www.altera.com/products/devkits/altera/kit-sv-gt-si.html

Conclusions • New software tools allow the signal integrity engineer to quickly develop FPGA implementation of equalizers, shortening developing time. • In this paper, we successfully demonstrated how to generate a FPGA implementation of a duobinary system to improve signal integrity in legacy backplanes. • Two basic software tools were used Simulink (MATLAB) and Altera’s Quartus. With these newer tools rapid prototyping is possible but a signal integrity engineer needs to be aware of the challenges in integrating these software packages. 38

Acknowledgements This research was possible thanks to the following Sponsors:

39

Thank you for your attention I welcome your questions..

QUESTIONS?

A Rapid Prototyping of FPGA-Based Duobinary ... - Signal Integrity

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