A Hardware Implementation of POET Amir Moradi Horst G¨ ortz Institute for IT Security, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany [email protected]

This document briefly addresses the specification of a hardware implementation of the POET authenticated encryption scheme [2] submitted to the CAESAR authenticated encryption competition [1]. Amongst the variants of POET, only the one with full AES-128 for universal hashing is implemented though the AES modules can easily be adjusted to generate the four-round outputs. Further, in the design expressed below all operations of the underlying scheme are taken into account. In other words, the design is able to be used for encryption, decryption, tag generation, and tag verification. The block diagram of the implemented design is shown in Figure 1. The design has been developed to be independent of the AES modules. In the reported performance figures the round-based AES modules have been employed, that are capable to finish an either AES encryption or decryption in 10 clock cycles. Such modules can be replaced with faster (e.g., unrolled) but larger designs or with smaller (e.g., serialized) but slower designs. bot Due to the use of K, L, Ltop F , LF and LT , dedicated registers have been considered to store the corresponding values. The design supports only the message blocks with a size of a factor of 128 bits (16 bytes). The user can set the secret key SK, with which the other constants are internally generated. Sending the header and plaintext (respectively ciphertext) blocks are done by a 128-bit input port; the ciphertext (respectively plaintext) blocks as well as the tag are given out by a 128-bit output port. A 16-bit counter used to count the 128-bit blocks. Therefore, the design supports the headers and messages each with at most 216 × 128 = 223 = 8 Mbit. In order to support POET decryption the main AES module (the middle one in Figures 1) should support both AES encryption and decryption while only AES encryption modules suffice for top and bottom hashings. The main AES module requires the last roundkey, indicated by K10 , for decryption. Hence a dedicated register to store K10 has been considered in the design. The design presented in Figure 1 supports both Encrypt&Authenticate as Decrypt&Verify functionalities. If only the Encrypt&Authenticate is desired, the main AES module does not need to support the decryption. Further, a couple of registers and multiplexers can be removed. However, a design which supports only Decrypt&Verify requires both encryption and decryption by the main AES module, and it is actually not very different from the full design with all functionalities. The design has been implemented on a Spartan-6 FPGA (XC6SLX75) and its correct functionality has been verified by test vectors generated by the reference implementation available at https://github.com/cforler/poet. Ta-

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Fig. 1. Design architecture of the implemented POET

ble 1 depicts the resource and performance figures of different designs on the aforementioned FPGA. Since the main modules of POET are the AES encryption/decryption, the maximum clock frequency of the designs heavily depends on the the performance of such modules. Therefore, the performance figures of the employed AES modules are also reported in Table 1. It is noteworthy that the reported throughput was calculated for a long stream of data at the maximum frequency. For the ASIC figures depicted in Table 2 we used Synopsys DesignCompiler version A-2007.12-SP1 for synthesis of the designs to the Virtual Silicon (VST) standard cell library UMCL18G212T3 which is based on the UMC L180 0.18µm 1P 6M logic process with a typical voltage of 1.8V.

Table 1. FPGA performance figures Slice

Design AES Encryption only AES Encryption & Decryption POET Encrypt&Authenticate POET Decrypt&Verify POET Full

1,265 2,040 5,461 6,070 6,298

Reg. 267 280 1,854 1,985 1,995

LUT 1,695 2,978 5,949 6,969 7,049

Clock Throughput (MHz) (Mbps) 91 61 90 1,152 60 768 50 640

Table 2. ASIC performance figures Design AES Encryption only AES Encryption & Decryption POET Encrypt&Authenticate POET Decrypt&Verify POET Full

area (GE) 8,432 11,008 35,808 39,427 39,826

Clock Throughput (MHz) (Mbps) 121 62 74 947 62 794 61 781

References 1. CAESAR Competition. http://competitions.cr.yp.to/caesar.html. 2. F. Abed, S. R. Fluhrer, C. Forler, E. List, S. Lucks, D. A. McGrew, and J. Wenzel. Pipelineable On-Line Encryption. In FSE 2014, volume ??? of LNCS, page ??? Springer, 2014.

A Hardware Implementation of POET -

and LT , dedicated registers have been con- sidered to store the corresponding values. The design supports only the message blocks with a size of a factor of 128 bits (16 bytes). The user can set the secret key SK, with which the other constants are internally generated. Sending the header and plaintext (respectively ...

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