2.3 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION Objectives  Use long division to divide polynomials by other polynomials.  Use the Remainder Theorem and the Factor Theorem. Long Division of Polynomials *In the previous section, zeros of a function were discussed. If x = a is a zero of a function f , then ( x − a ) is a factor of f . If f is a second-degree polynomial or higher, then there must exist another polynomial function, q ( x ) , such that f ( x ) = ( x − a ) ⋅ q ( x ) . This is no different than arithmetic. If 4 is a factor of 24, then there exists another number, #, such that

24 = 4 ( # ) . To find the missing number, we divide twenty four by four and get six. This implies that we can divide f ( x ) by ( x − a ) to find q ( x ) .

Ex) Divide the polynomial (6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4) by ( x − 2), and use the result to factor

(6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4) completely.

TURN OVER

*Not all long division in arithmetic resulted in a remainder of zero. Similarly, not all long division of polynomials results in a remainder of zero.

(

)

Ex) Divide x 2 + 3 x + 5 by ( x + 1) .

*Again, taking a hint from arithmetic, we can rewrite the ratio of two polynomials using division. Just like:

2 7 15 14

implies that

15 1 1 = 2 = 2+ 7 7 7

implies that

x 2 + 3x + 5 = x +1

1 It follows:

x+2 x + 1 x 2 + 3x + 5 x2 + x 2x + 5 2x + 2 3

x 2 + 3x + 5 3 by ( x + 1) ? = ( x + 2) + *What is the result if we multiply both sides of x +1 x +1

*In general, Dividend = ( ________________ )( __________________ ) + ( _________________ ). NEXT PAGE

*The Division Algorithm ~ If f ( x ) and

*When is the ratio of two polynomials considered improper? Give an example.

*When is the ratio of two polynomials considered proper? Give an example.

TURN OVER

(

)

Ex) Divide x 3 − 1 by ( x − 1) .

(

)

(

)

Ex) Divide −5 x 2 − 2 + 3 x + 2 x 4 + 4 x 3 by 2 x − 3 + x 2 . Write the result in “mixed number” form.

NEXT PAGE

The Remainder and Factor Theorems *The Remainder Theorem ~ If a polynomial

3 2 Ex) Use division to find f ( −2 ) if f ( x ) = 3x + 8 x + 5 x − 7. Check your answer by plugging −2 into the

function.

*Since 15 ÷ 7 has a remainder of 1 and 21 ÷ 7 has a remainder of 0, we know that 7 is a factor of 21 but not

15.

*The Factor Theorem ~ A polynomial

TURN OVER

4 3 2 Ex) Show that ( x − 2 ) and ( x + 3) are factors of f ( x ) = 2 x + 7 x − 4 x − 27 x − 18. Then find the

remaining factors of f and write f in factored form.

2.3 Polynomial Division.pdf

Page 1 of 6. 2.3 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION. Objectives. Use long division to divide polynomials by other polynomials. Use the Remainder Theorem and the Factor Theorem. Long Division of Polynomials. *In the previous section, zeros of a function were discussed. If x = a is a zero of a function f , then ( ) x − a is. a factor of f ...

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