Economic Growth, North & South: Industrial, Market & Transportation Revolutions (1800-1860) Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Program of the Collaborative for Educational Services Richard Cairn, Director, Emerging America Program Collaborative for Educational Services Primary Source Sets & Resources Created for Special Education in Institutional Settings (SEIS) Introduction: ​The following primary source set and resources were compiled to illustrate the economic growth in both the northern and southern United States between 1800 and 1860. Such areas as industry, the market economy, and transportation are included in the set. Completing the set are two exhibits featuring the Industrial Revolution, including one produced as a part of the Emerging America program at the Collaborative for Educational Services. Primary sources and activities: 1. Development of Industry and Its Impacts on People and Communities a. CES Primary Source Set Development of Industry and Its Impacts on People and Communities Overview:​ The sketch of pastoral Massachusetts contrasts with the heavily industrialized landscapes. The Empire and Holyoke images contain many detailed images of massive structures, bridges, canals and other engineering marvels of industrialism. The Lowell document provides much factual evidence to analyze.

Title:​ S.E. prospect from an eminence near the common, Boston.​ Annotation:​ Etching. [1790] Samuel Hill. A pastoral, rural image of Boston from right after the Revolution, contrasts with the dense, industrial-commercial environment of Boston–and much of Massachusetts

only 50 years later. (For example, see:​.)

Title:​ Empire Sewing Machine Co., New York Annotation:​ Lithograph. [c. 1870] Large color ad contrasts hand-wielded needle and thread vs. home sewing machine, sailing ships vs. steam ships, stage coach vs. steam train, and shows New York and Brooklyn, including the mighty (and new) Brooklyn Bridge.

Title:​ Excelsior Iron Works. Undated. Annotation:​ Building in picture says “1839”. Iron and steel were essential components of all industrial processes.

Title:​ Statistics of Lowell manufacturers. January 1857. Annotation:​ Co​mpiled from authentic sources. Shows the scope, scale, and products of Lowell manufacturers. Numbers of women vs. men. Wages. Population growth. Describes dam and reservoir, canals, hospitals, banks, and other supporting institutions.

Title:​ Bird’s eye view of the 1881 city of Holyoke, and village of South Hadley Falls, Mass. ​ Annotation:​ H.H. Bailey. Aerial map shows a planned industrial city with elaborate canals, similar to if a bit later than Lowell. Viewer can enlarge maps to show stunning close-ups of details. Border highlights 2 dozen landmark mills, City Hall, Opera House, etc. Maps of many other Massachusetts cities are also available. (Though not Lowell!)


Title: ​Miller’s Song. 1860. Annotation:​ Sheet music. H. De Marsan, Publisher. As sung by Fred Shaw. A lament for an old town mill, now replaced by a “factory, dark and drear.”

Title:​ Cotton Gins… the machine invented by Eli Whitney, for ginning cotton, politely sent to us from the U.S. Patent Office. 1823. Annotation: ​Published in American Farmer magazine. Image from the original patent.

Title:​ The First Cotton Gin. Annotation:​ 1869. Illustration from Harper’s Weekly, 1869. The image was drawn after the event.

Title:​ Jonathan Emanuel House, 251 Gov’t St. at Joachim, Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama. Photo taken 1939. House built 1836. Annotation:​ This is one of hundreds of photos in a collection:

Carnegie Survey of the Architecture of the South, taken in the 1930s: his-collection/​. Images demonstrate the range of structures, including the great wealth and cultural power generated by the slave economy.


Title:​ Elmscourt, quarters, Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi. Photo taken 1938 by Frances Benjamin Johnston. Building erected in 1810. Annotation: ​Given that the photos were taken more than 70 years after the end of slavery, it makes sense that the surviving slaves quarters would be of substantial construction

b. Other Notable Resources “Steaming into History: The Barnet, December 1, 1826” Annotation:​ Primary source-based online exhibit on the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution and Transportation Revolution. Created by CES. Image courtesy Lyman and Merrie Wood Museum of Springfield History.

“Forge of Innovation” Annotation:​ Primary source-based online exhibit on the Springfield Armory and the genesis of the Industrial Revolution. Interchangeable parts were invented at the armory with Federal Government sponsorship. Image courtesy Springfield Armory National Historic Site.



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