Industrial Revolution and Its Impacts at Home and Abroad (18801920) Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Program of the Collaborative for Educational Services http://EmergingAmerica.org/TPS Richard Cairn, Director, Emerging America Program Collaborative for Educational Services Primary Source Sets & Resources Created for Special Education in Institutional Settings (SEIS) Introduction: A rich range of primary sources introduces the Industrial Revolution, exploring both contributing factors and its impacts. 1. Development of Industry and Its Impacts on People, Communities, and the World a. CES Primary Source Set: Overview: The Vanderbilt home contrasts sharply with images of poor, working children. A political cartoon expresses the unequal struggle between factory owners (including Vanderbilt) and their workers. Images of disasters point out some of the human and environmental costs of industrialization. Cartoon, film, and image explore growing American imperial power in the era. Title: Marble House, Newport, Rhode Island http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2011632107/ Annotation: Photo 19802006 of Gilded Age (1890s) house designed by R.M. Hunt. Shows the phenomenal wealth of capitalist barons such as the Vanderbilt family from railroads, manufacturing, and other ventures. Title: Bessie Blitch, 15 years old. Sewing curtains on machine http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/nclc.05192/ Annotation: Boston. January 29, 1917. Lewis W. Hine. One of hundreds of photos by reformer Hine to show the devastating effects of child labor.
Title: Breaker boys in Kohinor mine, Shenandoah City, Pa. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a52668/ Annotation:  F.B. Johnston. Photo of nimble young boys sorting pieces of coal on a shute. Many boys died of lung disease from inhaling great quantities of coal dust. Title: 1,000 May Have Perished When Dam Burst
Annotation: Describes an all too common failing of industrial technology. Title: The Johnstown calamity. A slightly damaged house. New York Tribune, October 1, 1911. http://www.loc.gov/item/2012646804/ Annotation: New York Tribune, October 1, 1911. The Johnstown flood was merely one of the most famous of industrial disasters that brought awareness and impetus for the Progressives to enact reforms. Title: Railroad wreck on Long Island Railroad, Fifth Avenue, Bay Shore, L.I., July 10, 1909. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2012649462/ Annotation: Train lines expanded from the 1840s till the 1920s, with a large number of deadly accidents. 2
Title: The tournament of today – a setto between labor and monopoly http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.28412/ Annotation: (1883). F. Graetz. Chromolithograph political cartoon claims an unequal contest between workers and capitalists (described by Library of Congress as Cyrus W. Field, William H. Vanderbilt, John Roach, Jay Gould, and Russell Sage). Title: A thing well begun is half done. Victor Gillam. 1899. http://www.loc.gov/item/2010651373/ Annotation: Political cartoon shows Uncle Sam bringing more shovels to help President McKinley build the Panama Canal. Ships of all nations back up, and the American flag flies over Cuba and other new acquisitions. Title: Roosevelt’s Rough Riders embarking for Santiago. 1898. http://www.loc.gov/item/98501035/ Annotation: Film clip of Teddy Roosevelt and his dashing cavalry unit leaving for the SpanishAmerican War. One of several films of the Rough Riders. Title: Welcome! Come In. 1908. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85066387/19080426/ed1/seq1 /
Annotation: Image of American battleship returning from showing the flag and American power overseas. Part of a collection of articles from the Chronicling America collection of newspapers: http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/greatfleet.html . 3
b. Library of Congress Primary Source Sets: ■
“The Industrial Revolution in the United States” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/indust rialrevolution/ Annotation: Includes photos/images of mills, capitalists and workers; political cartoon; railroad map, reports, and political tracts. Reports by Hines on cannery workers and Wright from U.S. Department of Labor offer excellent and accessible contrasts of perspectives.
“Immigration: Challenges for New Americas” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/immig ration/ Annotation: Includes images, songs, maps, data, political cartoon, and more on the period around the turn of the 20th Century. Includes items on the immigrant experience as well as on opposition to immigration.
“Children’s Lives at the Turn of the Twentieth Century” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/childr enslives/ Annotation: Features photos and other images of children across a range of socioeconomic conditions.
c. Library of Congress Primary SourceBased Lessons: ■
“Labor Unions and Working Conditions: United We Stand” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/labor/preparation .html Annotation: Resource galley under “Preparation” presents usable and engaging images, documents, and sheet music.
“Child Labor in America” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/childlabor/proce dure.html Annotation: “Procedure” page offers useful approaches to the topic, featuring images and other accessible primary sources.
“Child Labor and the Building of America” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/built/ Annotation: similar resources to “Child Labor in America” lesson.
“African American Identity in the Gilded Age: Two Unreconciled Strivings” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/strivings/preparat ion.html Annotation: Includes discussion of the role of African Americans in industrial America. Student Galleries under “Procedure” offer many engaging and relevant images. Lesson also includes links to very large (and therefore complex) yet interesting collections of primary sources.
“Natural Disasters: Nature’s Fury” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/nature/ Annotation: Offers compelling images, personal accounts, and songs for several disasters from the turn of the 20th Century. See “Gallery of Artifacts” under “Procedures” section. Most or all of these “natural” events in reality reflect direct environmental impacts of industrialization and urbanization.
“Explorations in American Environmental History” http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/explorations/ Annotation: focuses on the conservation movement and the protection of wild spaces. Presents speeches, reports, images, and engaging questions.